You don’t have to be a sports fan to know about the latest controversy in the NFL called “Deflategate.” Questions about air pressure in footballs and unfair advantage swirl around the New England Patriots as they prepare for the Superbowl. Every major news organization is covering this story so we turned to sports ethicist and Rockford University philosophy professor Shawn Klein (SK) (http://sportsethicist.com) to discuss honesty, fairness and integrity. We also examine his view that sports is a microcosm of life, in this Q&A with Dan Lothian (DL) of Heart Beings.
DL: You said somewhere that sports is a microcosm of life. What did you mean by that?
SK: Within sport, we see the expression of much of what makes us human. We strive for achievement, for excellence. We engage and develop our physical and intellectual capacities. We risk ourselves in life and games: our physical health, our reputation, andour sense of self. We discover truths about ourselves and other people. We work together and cooperate to achieve our goals.
DL: What can deflategate teach us about life?
SK: Details matter. You can be responsible for outcomes that arise out of small details to which you normally don’t pay attention.
Don’t rush to judgment. Many in the media and in the ‘court of public opinion’ have already concluded that the Patriots organization, Belichick or Brady specifically, are guilty of these allegations. But we really don’t know anything. There are reports that many of the footballs used were under-inflated, but we don’t know by how many or by how much. We don’t know how this happened. Before concluding someone is guilty and impugning their character or integrity, we ought to wait for sufficient facts.
It might not have a significant effect, but rules still matter. Almost no one with any knowledge of football thinks the Patriots won the game or gained any significantcompetitive advantage because of under-inflated footballs. Nevertheless, the rules that define and govern a game are important; without the rules there is no game. So even relatively minor rules and minor violations can be serious since they have the potential to undermine the game itself. The rules and norms that govern society can also be like this. Minor norms like politeness and courtesy seem relatively unimportant compared to norms prohibiting lying or causing physical harm. Nevertheless, impolite and discourteous behavior slowly erodes the fluidity of our interactions with others and so slowly undermines civil society.
DL: While some may dismiss this controversy, hasn’t it opened up a discussion about fairness, integrity, and honesty in sports?
SK: Yes, It has brought attention to the importance of these values for sport and for life. Hopefully these conversations will continue in sport organizations and amongst individuals.
DL: What should parents tell their young children, especially those involved in competitive sports?
SK: Winning is important; it is one of the main reasons you play. But it is not the only value at stake. How you play, how you go about striving for your victory is equally important. A dishonorable victory isn’t a real victory and you cheat yourself by not focusing on working towards an honorable victory.
In many ways, victory depends on luck and on external circumstances (weather, the bounce of a fumble, etc). You can’t control for those. All you can do is focus on your preparation and actions. Success comes from consistent preparation and improving execution. That is what you can control. So, you can’t guarantee a victory in any one game – no matter what you do (to footballs or whatever) – all you can do is be as prepared as you can be.
DL: Isn’t reputation also a big factor here? Once a cheater always a cheater?
SK: Fair or not, this is a big part of why many have been quick to judge in this case. Because of the previous incident of illegal videotaping of games, many assume the Patriots are cheaters. This is one reason to always do your best to keep your house in order.
DL: When this kind of thing happens, can a victory whether in the upcoming game or in life truly be a victory?
SK: In general, if you win because you cheat, you haven’t really won. You’ve played a different game than your opponent, so you haven’t bested them at the game they were playing. But this isn’t so simple to apply. What counts as cheating? Not all rule-violations are cases of cheating. Some rule violations are accidents or inadvertent. Others are intentional, but still aren’t cheating. Pass interference is against the rules of football, but it is neither considered cheating nor something that destroys one’s victory. Also, how much has to happen for the game to be undermined? Slightly (as is being reported now) under-inflated footballs didn’t have a material impact on the game, so it doesn’t undermine the game or the victory. But how far would something have to go before it meant you weren’t really playing the same game anymore? Neither question has a clear or obvious answer, but it is important to think about where these boundaries might be, even if they arealways rough or vague.
DL: Last fun question – what do you now know about a football that you didn’t know a few weeks ago?
SK: Like most fans of football, I had no idea there was such a precise range of PSI for a regulation football or that so many would care.
[Note: For length and publication purposes, interview has been edited by Heart Beings Staff.]